Bleach will really break down whatever is trapped inside the cloth, so that it can easily be rinsed out. The owner of one of my fav LFS
( no longer open unfortunately ), told me as long as it is rinsed well, and completely dried, it is fine. The drying is key, according to him. If rinsed and completely dried, the bleach is no longer active, after it has dried.
I used to clean my micron canister filters like this for 5+ years, and have been doing my filter socks the same way for 2, and have seen no issue from it whatsoever.