Well I'll let others chime in as far as cycling the tank and other things. As far as feeding, I feed mine 2 times a day. I give them a pinch of food and wait for them to eat it. Give them another pinch and wait. I do that for about 2 minutes or until they loose interest. I'd say 10 flakes for 2 goldfish probably isn't enough.
I'd read through some of the articles that are at the top of the Freshwater Getting Started threads. In particular... http://www.aquariumadvice.com/articl...le-/Page1.html
You made the right move on getting them out of those small bowls and getting something larger, with a filter! Good luck!