I don't know about links. I am an electronics technologist with a major in communications which includes the traveling of light.
As electromagnetic pulses pass thru a medium there is a measurable loss of signal strength based on a number of factors. This includes light passing thru water. Frequency of the light has a huge impact on attenuation. That is why the blues penetrate better than reds and yellows.
But the size of the light source has no impact on penetration. The losses are measured in dB losses with a 3dB loss being a 50% loss in strength. We can overcome this loss by focussing the transmitter to the target area. The number on focussing lenses represents a 3dB loss compared to the center of the light. That is to say a light with a 40 degree beamwidth would have 1/2 as much light at the 40 degree edges as at the center of the beam.
So having 100 x 1 w LEDs would get the exact same amount of light to the same depth as 1 x 100 w led
if they have the same lenses. Of course the 100 watt led
would have all the light more centered under the bulb and the array would have the energy more spread out with fewer shadows. higher strength bulbs tend to have narrower focussing lenses which may lead some to think they penetrate better because of their size rather than their lenses.
If you had a coral with higher light needs you could certainly place a few LEDs closer to that target.