Florescent lighting uses electrical current in a mercury vapor to excite electrons to produce light. LEDs are light emitting diodes that emit photons through electroluminescence.
Beyond that, there are a myriad of varieties of each type of lighting you listed, and there are pros and cons to each... cost, cost to operate, wavelength of light, point lighting vs. diffuse lighting, wattage, color temperature, etc. etc. There are also fixtures in both categories that are great for coral, plants, etc, and there are fixtures in both categories that are junk.
What is it you are trying to accomplish, and we might be able to narrow in on what it is you want to know.